Paternal exercise has significant impact on childs lifelong metabolic health

first_img Source:https://www.joslin.org/ Reviewed by Alina Shrourou, B.Sc. (Editor)Oct 22 2018Recent studies have linked development of type 2 diabetes and impaired metabolic health individuals to their parents’ poor diet, and there is increasing evidence that fathers play an important role in obesity and metabolic programming of their offspring.In a new study published today in the journal Diabetes, researchers at Joslin Diabetes Center have shown that paternal exercise has a significant impact on the metabolic health of their offspring well into adulthood.The study was led by Laurie Goodyear, PhD, senior investigator and head of the Section on Integrative Physiology and Metabolism at Joslin and professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School. The study was co-led by Kristin Stanford, PhD, a physiology and cell biology researcher who is now with The Ohio State University College of Medicine at the Wexner Medical Center.Related StoriesSupervised fun, exercise both improve psychosocial health of children with obesityRegular physical activity can be effective in reducing pain from arthritisResearchers identify molecular pathway underpinning exercise and improved motor learningGoodyear and Stanford investigated how a father’s exercise regimen would affect his offspring’s metabolic health. Using a mouse model, they fed male mice either a normal diet or a high-fat diet for three weeks. Some mice from each diet group were sedentary and some exercised freely. After three weeks, the mice bred and their offspring ate a normal diet under sedentary conditions for a year.The researchers report that adult offspring from sires who exercised had improved glucose metabolism, decreased body weight and a decreased fat mass.”It really shows how important it is for men to exercise prior to conceiving because it will have lifelong effects on the health of their offspring. When we put the males on a high-fat diet, it had a terrible effect on the offspring; but what was surprising was that situation was completely reversed when the male added in exercise. So translated to humans, even if dad isn’t eating really well, he can still affect his offspring positively by exercising,” said Goodyear. “This also will dramatically decrease the risk of developing type 2 diabetes for the offspring,” added Goodyear.The team also found that exercise caused changes in the genetic expression of the father’s sperm that suppress poor dietary effects and transfer to the offspring.”We saw a strong change in their small-RNA profile. Now we want to see exactly which small-RNAs are responsible for these metabolic improvements, where it’s happening in the offspring and why,” Stanford said.The researchers believe the results support the hypothesis that small RNAs in sperm could help transmit paternal environmental information to the next generation.last_img read more

New protein target for deadly ovarian cancer

first_imgThe good news about the newly discovered protein is that it can be inhibited, thus inactivating cell processes within ovarian cancer cells to switch them from a constitutively proliferative cell cycle to one which results in senescence, or going to sleep. The key role of the protein was identified on cell culture experiments by researchers at Penn State College of Medicine.The current study focused on teasing out the differences in the metabolism of ovarian cancer cells by comparing them with cells from a normal fallopian tube.The route used to achieve this was quantitative spectrometry, which helped analyze the metabolites produced by various cellular pathways in the two type of tissue. Among the differences, it was revealed that cancer cells utilized glucose, a form of sugar, via the key energy cycle called the citric acid cycle, far more often, as against the more common use of an oxygen-requiring pathway called aerobic glycolysis. This accounts for the presence of a high level of citric acid activity in all high-grade serous ovarian cancer cells.  Related StoriesLiving with advanced breast cancerUsing machine learning algorithm to accurately diagnose breast cancerMother calls for protein shake regulation after daughter diesThis means that many therapies which inhibit the breakdown of glucose (glycolysis) to destroy cancer cells may be quite ineffective. Dahl commented that this could often result, in fact, in the production of toxins that harm normal healthy tissue.Instead, the team in the current study looked at the effects of inhibiting the wildtype or normal form of an enzyme, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH 1), which plays a vital part in the citric acid cycle. They selected this protein because it was the only one in this pathway that is expressed at higher levels in both adherent and spheroid tumor cells. Increased activity of this enzyme severely impacts progression-free survival, which is an important outcome measured in assessing the effectiveness of any cancer therapy.Mutants of this protein are common in other tumors, but the wildtype form is typically present in cells within HGSC. The researchers hypothesize that the presence of this enzyme is an important advantage to these cells, and its inhibition is a key step to inducing senescence.The researchers found that suppressing the work of this protein stopped cell division completely by suppressing the activity of multiple other genes, inhibiting vital metabolic pathways. Both adherent cells of the primary tumor, and spheroid cells of secondary HGSC, become senescent when the wildtype IDH 1 enzyme is inhibited. Thus, this could be an excellent way to treat HGSC at all stages. This is an important consideration, as ovarian cancers are rarely diagnosed at early stages.While there are already FDA (US Food and Drug Administration)-approved drugs against one of the mutant forms of this enzyme, the team wondered whether they would work against the wildtype form as well. They found that one did, and this is now a part of their continued research agenda.Aird says, “One of our long-term goals is to try and repurpose this already-approved drug as a treatment for this form of ovarian cancer.” Besides adapting existing drugs against the enzyme to fight this type of cancer, the researchers want to examine the differences in the metabolic functioning of normal and HGSC cells more closely. Another goal is to examine the effectiveness of combining IDH 1 inhibitors with other treatments. Journal reference:Targeting IDH1 as a Prosenescent Therapy in High-grade Serous Ovarian Cancer, Erika S. Dahl, Raquel Buj, Kelly E. Leon, Jordan M. Newell, Yuka Imamura, Benjamin G. Bitler, Nathaniel W. Snyder and Katherine M. Aird, Mol Cancer Res June 17 2019 DOI: 10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-18-1233, http://mcr.aacrjournals.org/content/early/2019/06/17/1541-7786.MCR-18-1233 By Dr. Liji Thomas, MDJul 14 2019A new study shows that targeting a specific protein found within quickly spreading high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSC) of the ovary could help contain these cancers. HGSC is the most common and deadly form of epithelial ovarian cancer, which is itself the deadliest cancer of the female reproductive tract. When HGSC spreads outside the ovaries, within the peritoneal cavity, it forms detached balls called spheroids, which may look and act differently from the adherent cells of the primary tumor.The study is published in the current issue of the journal Molecular Cancer Research. However, as researcher Erika Dahl explains, “A hallmark of cancer cells is that their metabolic processes are often different from normal, healthy cells.”  This is called metabolic reprogramming. As one of the outcomes, study author Katherine Aird says, “Cancer cells can grow forever without stimulus.” 70% of HGSC relapse despite treatment, becoming resistant to chemotherapy, which makes the new discovery a true potential breakthrough in the treatment of this tumor.All life at cellular and organism level depends upon thousands of life processes that provide and degrade a range of chemicals required for proper function of the cells and tissues. These intricately interdependent processes together they make up the body’s metabolism. Cancer cell Illustration. Image Credit: Jovan Vitanovski / Shutterstocklast_img read more

NissanRenault on smoother road but speed bumps loom analysts

first_imgThe new team in Renault’s driving seat face some politically sensitve decisions, with the company ingrained in the French psyche Gaetan Toulemonde, a French auto analyst at Deutsche Bank, told AFP that French interference is a problem and urged Renault to reduce its stake in Nissan.”Don’t forget Volvo more than 20 years ago. The marriage broke up because of the French state,” said the expert, referring to a failed merger between Renault and the Swedish manufacturer.’National property’Despite ongoing strains, analysts generally agree the two firms are now so closely interconnected that a split would be catastrophic.They need each other to develop the technology for electric vehicles, automated driving and connected cars—as well as to compete with the likes of Toyota and Volkswagen, said Lewis.”Given their platform development for the next decade is already intertwined, divorcing now would be difficult” she added.Nakanishi agreed, saying it would now be “impossible” now to end the alliance. “It took 20 years to get to this level. It would take 20 years to unwind,” he said.But Renault is also deeply ingrained in the economy and psyche of France, making any reduced presence politically sensitive.”I want the French people to know: not a day goes by where we are not following as closely as possible the situation of Renault and the alliance,” said Economy Minister Bruno Le Maire.And the bond between France and Renault was summed up in an editorial in the regional French press after the appointments were made public.”Which family has not one day driven in a Renault… it embodies the car of the people.”Referring to French rock star Johnny Hallyday, the editorial concludes: “Renault is to the car what Johnny was to French music. National property.” Explore further Citation: Nissan-Renault on smoother road but speed bumps loom: analysts (2019, January 25) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-01-nissan-renault-smoother-road-loom-analysts.html “They need to reduce their stake. That is the only solution to regain trust and make the alliance workable,” added Nakanishi, as reports in the Japanese media said Paris was pushing for a full-on merger. Renault’s appointment of a new leadership duo to replace the detained Carlos Ghosn should ease tensions with Japanese partner Nissan, analysts say, although the French state’s close involvement remains a brake on ties. Carlos Ghosn took Nissan from the verge of bankruptcy and built it into the key partner of a fractious alliance France pushes Japan to accept Renault-Nissan merger: reports Ghosn was the linchpin of the three-way alliance that also includes Mitsubishi Motors, credited with driving together a sometimes fractious threesome with headquarters 10,000 kilometres apart to become the world’s top-selling auto group.But his shock arrest in Tokyo on charges of financial misconduct immediately drove a wedge between Nissan and Renault, with dark mutterings in Paris of a “coup” orchestrated by CEO Hiroto Saikawa to depose his former mentor and seize more power within the group.Saikawa himself confessed Thursday that communications had been “a bit difficult” since the arrest, noting that while Nissan had immediately jettisoned Ghosn as chairman, Renault kept him on as they awaited evidence against him.However, the appointment of old Asia hand Thierry Bollore as permanent CEO and Jean-Dominique Senard from tyre manufacturer Michelin as chairman, should open a “new chapter” in ties, Saikawa told reporters in Tokyo.Janet Lewis, head of transportation research at Macquarie Capital Securities, told AFP the alliance was “in many respects an unprecedented success story” and said it was “positive that Renault is moving forward” with Thursday’s appointments.But she added: “I believe it is less helpful that the French government seems to be so involved in the alliance.”‘Passion to be independent’ Much of the tension between the partners stems from a complex ownership structure that gives Renault 43 percent of Nissan and the French state just over 15 percent in Renault—making Paris the pivotal player.Nissan now outsells its French counterpart and its broad global footprint means it deserves to be seen as more than a junior partner, said Lewis.”Renault should be prepared to alter the working relationship to reflect what Nissan brings to the table—among other things a very strong position in both North America and China, markets where Renault has limited to no presence,” the analyst told AFP.Seen from Nissan’s perspective, the “strong interference” of the French state is “not fair”, according to Takaki Nakanishi, an auto analyst based in Tokyo.Ghosn rescued Nissan from the verge of bankruptcy by tying it to the alliance but now the Japanese firm “has a passion to be independent. They do not want to be part of the French state”, said Nakanishi. © 2019 AFP This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Jaitley says ruling historic claims Aadhaar saves ₹90000 cr a yearJaitley says

first_imgSHARE ‘Ruling welcome, but more clarity needed’ Published on RELATED aadhaar Hailing the Supreme Court’s Aadhaar verdict as “historic”, Finance Minister Arun Jaitley said on Wednesday that the opposition Congress had cut “a very sorry figure” after the apex court upheld the core of national biometric ID programme, which, he claimed, had helped save ₹90,000 crore every year by plugging leakages in welfare schemes.Jaitley, who said he had not read the full judgment, said his understanding of the verdict was that the Supreme Court had barred the use of the 12-digit unique identification number by private entities like mobile phone firms in absence of a legislative backing for that.“Section 57 (of the Aadhaar Act that has been struck down by the Supreme Court) says that there can be special enabling power to allow other entities or body corporate (to use Aadhaar). I can give you my information (about the judgement). That is not permissible unless it is backed up by law. That seems to be the spirit of the judgment,” he said.When asked about the requirement of linking Aadhaar with bank accounts and mobile phones, Jaitley reiterated that he had not read the judgment.“It is a historic judgement and the whole concept of unique identity number that has been accepted after judicial review is an extremely welcome decision,” Jaitley told a news conference here.He said the court has also upheld that the Aadhaar legislation, which mandated assigning unique identification number of Indian citizens, was a Money Bill.‘Cong cut a sorry figure’Responding to the Congress charge that the apex court deleting private usage of Aadhaar is a “slap” on government’s face, Jaitley said the opposition party when it was in power brought in the ID programme without any legislative backing and without specifying what it was meant for.“Obviously, the Congress party cuts a very sorry figure. They introduced the idea and then did not know what to do with it….The version they had drafted was there shall be an Aadhaar card…what it will be used for was unclear from the beginning. Now you do not need an Aadhaar card which is not to be used for a particular purpose.”   September 26, 2018 COMMENT SHARE SHARE EMAIL courts and legal Congress: Govt let private firms access citizens’ data Union Finance Minister Arun Jaitley at a post-Cabinet meetingbriefing in New Delhi on Wednesday. – VV KRISHNAN COMMENTSlast_img read more

CleanMax Solar to install rooftop unit for AP SecretariatCleanMax Solar to install

first_imgSHARE SHARE SHARE EMAIL CleanMax Solar is set to install a 842 kWp rooftop solar power unit at the Andhra Pradesh Secretariat in the upcoming Greenfiled capital city of Amaravati.The project is being installed in partnership with the Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority (APCRDA). The solar project is the first Power Purchase Agreement signed as a part of the tender awarded by New & Renewable Energy Development Corporation of Andhra Pradesh Ltd. (NREDCAP) to CleanMax Solar. The plant will be spread across seven buildings , including the Chief Minister’s Office Building and AP Assembly, among others.The project is based on the Resco (renewable service company) and Opex (Operational expense) model. The unit is expected to generate 12.4 lakh units per annum, with estimated saving on electricity bills to be Rs 42 lakh per annum for the next 25 years. The plant will abate 1026 tonnes of CO2 emission annually, equivalent to planting 24,360 trees.Andrew Hines, Co-founder, CleanMax Solar in a statement said, “Amaravati has been envisioned as a truly global city, and we are part of making it a sustainable city as well. Andhra Pradesh Chief Minister N. Chandrababu Naidu has laid special emphasis on driving sustainability by sourcing a large portion of its energy requirement from renewable energy.”“CleanMax Solar will equip the city with one of its first solar projects, to meet 25% of AP Secretariat’s power requirement through sustainable solar power,” he said. It recently installed a 2MWp solar plant for Hindustan Shipyard Ltd in Andhra Pradesh. Once the Secretariat project is operational, the company projects will be abating 6168 tonnes of CO2 annually, via 4.3 MW of rooftop solar projects across 5 locations in Andhra Pradesh. Published on Andhra Pradesh COMMENT solar December 13, 2018 COMMENTSlast_img read more

Acting Chairman of Council of Economic Advisers Is Named

first_imgHealth economist Tomas Philipson has been named acting chairman of the White House Council of Economic Advisers, a White House spokesman said Monday. Mr. Philipson, a professor at the University of Chicago, has served as one of three members of the council since August 2017. He has been serving as the acting chairman after the resignation of Kevin Hassett on June 28. Mr….last_img

Feds Powell affirms rate cut view others see US economy humming

first_img {{category}} {{time}} {{title}} ATLANTA/VICTOR, Idaho: As Federal Reserve Chair Jerome Powell kept the focus Thursday on global risks that could trigger a Fed rate cut in coming weeks, his colleagues from regional Fed districts painted a rosier picture of continued U.S. economic growth and a solid business outlook.The contrasting remarks show the dilemma the Fed faces as it heads towards an end-of-month monetary policy meeting now broadly expected to end with a rate reduction.On one hand – emphasised by Powell in Congressional hearings Wednesday and Thursday and seconded by the influential chief of the New York Fed and Fed Governor Lael Brainard — global trade and economic risks have put a dent in investment, inflation is well below the Fed’s 2% target, and the U.S. expansion may need a shot in the arm.But as they polled businesses in their districts, Atlanta Federal Reserve Bank President Raphael Bostic and Richmond Federal Reserve Bank President Thomas Barkin saw an economy still humming, and no clear need for the Fed to ease monetary policy. Powell has pointed to a number of national surveys as evidence business confidence took a hit recently. Economy 11 Jul 2019 Fed’s Powell signals rate cut as trade war outweighs strong job market Economy Related News Related News Business News 09 Jul 2019 Fed easing likely to prompt China rate cut Tags / Keywords: “I am not seeing the storm clouds actually generate a storm yet,” said Bostic, who described himself as skeptical of the need to cut interest rates right now. “With very few exceptions businesses are telling me the economy is performing as strong as it was. They are not seeing weaknesses in consumer engagement. And they are not materially changing their plans.””I’ve been out in the last couple weeks and I’m talking to business people,” Barkin said on Thursday. “They are not yet leaning back…They are not cutting jobs, They are not cutting investments that have already been underway. But they are cautious…They haven’t stopped, they’ve just slowed.”More detail about on-the-ground business sentiment may come next week when the Fed releases its latest Beige Book compendium of anecdotal information from the 12 Fed districts.Powell has pointed to a number of national surveys as evidence business confidence took a hit recently, particularly in May after President Donald Trump threatened to impose tariffs on Mexican imports unless his demands about tougher immigration enforcement were met.The tariffs were not levied, but “it was a bit of a confidence shock, Powell told the Senate Banking Committee.In Albany, New York Thursday, New York Fed President John Williams, added his voice in support of a rate cut, citing uncertainties around trade and global growth and soft inflation. “The arguments, for adding policy accommodation have strengthened over time.”Brainard, in a separate appearance in Scranton, Pennsylvania, piled on. “Taking into account the downside risks at a time when inflation is on the soft side would argue for softening the expected path of monetary policy according to basic principles of risk management,” she told a community banking group.Neither Barkin nor Bostic have a vote this year on the Fed’s rate-setting committee. But they will participate in the debate when the Fed meets in three weeks in a session widely expected to reduce the Fed’s overnight target interest rate by at least a quarter of a percentage point.Investors expect that cut with near 100% certainty.Powell, in appearances on Capitol Hill this week, bolstered expectations such a cut is coming, and focused on the need to protect the United States against fallout from a weak global economy.Neither Barkin nor Bostic ruled out supporting a rate cut, which, according to minutes of the Fed’s June meeting, has drawn support for a variety of different reasons — both the global tensions Powell has focused upon, as well as weak inflation and a sense that the Fed had unintentionally set policy too tight with its four interest rate increases last year.At least a couple regional Fed bank presidents do support a rate cut, including St. Louis Fed Bank President James Bullard, and Minneapolis Fed President Neel Kashkari who on Thursday said he is advocating the “stronger medicine” of a half-percent rate cut. Both men say a rate cut is needed to boost inflation expectations.But other regional bank presidents have in recent days said they were struggling to justify lower rates at a time when unemployment is near a historic low, at 3.7%, and job growth continues apace.Bostic said that even recent weak inflation data may not be as worrisome as it might seem.With the Fed’s current preferred measure of inflation running at 1.6%, below the 2% target, some policymakers argue the central bank needs to do more or risk losing public trust that it takes the target seriously.”If the public comes to believe that a persistent downside miss to the 2% goal means the FOMC is not committed to that goal, then there is a problem,” Bostic said.But he added that his analysis of inflation expectations, based on surveys of professional forecasters and business executives, left him unconvinced that expectations are slipping. In addition, less “noisy” measures of actual inflation, which strip out the most volatile terms, indicate “that right now we are very close to our 2% price stability mandate.” – Reuters Markets 11 Jul 2019 Asia stocks rise, dollar sags as Fed chair sets stage for rate cutlast_img read more