Credit: Pixabay, Free-Photos (CC0 Source:https://www.plos.org Prion diseases are transmissible neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and other animals and are caused by a misfolded form of the prion protein. Currently, effective treatment for prion diseases is not available, and they are inevitably fatal. Prion strains can differ in incubation period and can interfere with each other when present in the same host, in some cases, completely blocking another strain from causing disease. Interference between prion strains is thought to be an important factor affecting the emergence of a dominant strain after interspecies transmission. Previous studies have examined the capacity of strains with long incubation periods to interfere with a short-incubation strains, but until now, it was not known if two strains with long incubation periods could interfere with each other.Related StoriesScreenIn3D receives technology innovation prizeNanoparticles used to deliver CRISPR gene editing tools into the cellTrump administration cracks down on fetal tissue researchIn the new study, Bartz and colleagues show that combinations of prion strains with long incubation periods do not interfere with each other in a test tube or in infected hamsters. Rather, both co-infecting strains amplified independently. The concept that not all prion strain combinations result in interference suggests that strain diversity in naturally infected animals may be greater than previously thought. Overall, this observation changes the paradigm of prion strain interactions, provides further evidence that strains are a dynamic mixture of substrains, and has important implications for interspecies transmission and the emergence of prion strains.“This work provides further evidence that prion strains compete for the template of conversion, PrPC,” says Bartz. “Importantly, we found that when the abundance of PrPC can fully support conversion of both prion strains in the same environment, strain interference does not occur.” Oct 19 2018The first example of prion strains that replicate independently in vitro and in vivo suggests that strain diversity may be greater than previously thought, according to a study published October 18 in the open-access journal PLOS Pathogens by Jason Bartz of Creighton University, and colleagues.
Source:https://www.joslin.org/ Reviewed by Alina Shrourou, B.Sc. (Editor)Oct 22 2018Recent studies have linked development of type 2 diabetes and impaired metabolic health individuals to their parents’ poor diet, and there is increasing evidence that fathers play an important role in obesity and metabolic programming of their offspring.In a new study published today in the journal Diabetes, researchers at Joslin Diabetes Center have shown that paternal exercise has a significant impact on the metabolic health of their offspring well into adulthood.The study was led by Laurie Goodyear, PhD, senior investigator and head of the Section on Integrative Physiology and Metabolism at Joslin and professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School. The study was co-led by Kristin Stanford, PhD, a physiology and cell biology researcher who is now with The Ohio State University College of Medicine at the Wexner Medical Center.Related StoriesSupervised fun, exercise both improve psychosocial health of children with obesityRegular physical activity can be effective in reducing pain from arthritisResearchers identify molecular pathway underpinning exercise and improved motor learningGoodyear and Stanford investigated how a father’s exercise regimen would affect his offspring’s metabolic health. Using a mouse model, they fed male mice either a normal diet or a high-fat diet for three weeks. Some mice from each diet group were sedentary and some exercised freely. After three weeks, the mice bred and their offspring ate a normal diet under sedentary conditions for a year.The researchers report that adult offspring from sires who exercised had improved glucose metabolism, decreased body weight and a decreased fat mass.”It really shows how important it is for men to exercise prior to conceiving because it will have lifelong effects on the health of their offspring. When we put the males on a high-fat diet, it had a terrible effect on the offspring; but what was surprising was that situation was completely reversed when the male added in exercise. So translated to humans, even if dad isn’t eating really well, he can still affect his offspring positively by exercising,” said Goodyear. “This also will dramatically decrease the risk of developing type 2 diabetes for the offspring,” added Goodyear.The team also found that exercise caused changes in the genetic expression of the father’s sperm that suppress poor dietary effects and transfer to the offspring.”We saw a strong change in their small-RNA profile. Now we want to see exactly which small-RNAs are responsible for these metabolic improvements, where it’s happening in the offspring and why,” Stanford said.The researchers believe the results support the hypothesis that small RNAs in sperm could help transmit paternal environmental information to the next generation.
By Dr. Ananya Mandal, MDJun 9 2019Researchers, in one of the most comprehensive global studies, have mapped the type and quantities of drinks consumed around the world. They explain that a major portion of the daily calorie and nutrition intake comes from the beverages consumed. The results of the study were presented at Nutrition 2019, the American Society for Nutrition annual meeting, held June 8-11, 2019 in Baltimore. In their study the team looked at beverage consumption habits from 185 countries around the world. Lead study author Laura Lara-Castor, a doctoral student in the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts University spoke about her “Global Dietary Database project,” saying that, “These preliminary data derived from the Global Dietary Database project can help inform nutrition transitions over time, the impacts of these beverages on global health, and targeted dietary policy to improve diet and health.”The team looked at 2015 data by compiling results from 1,100 surveys that were taken by 6.78 billion people around the world. The surveys looked at various dietary and beverage consuming habits.According to Lara-Castor and her team some patterns emerged from their study. She said, “Notably, sugar-sweetened beverage and fruit juice intake was highest in the Latin American region, where both commercial and homemade sugar-sweetened beverages and fruit drinks are widely consumed. Milk intake was highest in the high-income region (including countries such as Sweden, Iceland and Finland) where dairy farming is more widespread and dairy consumption has been traditionally a major part of the diet.” Youngsters living in urban areas and those with higher education levels consumed more beverages than otherwise, the team noted. Milk intake was high among those below 12 years of age as well as those above 72 years of age, found the study.Results revealed that in Mexico, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was at its highest with an average adult consuming over 19 ounces or 2.5 cups per day. Suriname and Jamaica came next with an average of around 15 ounces per day. China, Indonesia and Burkina Faso showed lowest consumption of these beverages. Fruit juice consumption was highest in nations such as Colombia and the Dominican Republic at around 10 to 11 or 1.4 cups per day. China, Portugal and Japan consumed lowest amounts of fruit juices, the team noted. Nations such as Sweden, Iceland and Finland consumed more milk than other nations at 9 or 10 ounces or 1.3 cups per day average. China, Togo and Sudan consumed least amount of milk on an average.Related StoriesHealthy high-fiber diet could reduce preeclampsia riskDiet and nutrition influence microbiome in colonic mucosaJAMA commentary: Nutrition knowledge essential for today’s physiciansThe researchers explain that Mexico with its highest consumption of sugary beverages is also a place where rates of obesity are one of the highest. Reports show that over 70 percent of the population in the nation is overweight or obese and over 70 percent of their sugar consumption comes from these sugary beverages with Coca-Cola being the most favourite. To curb use, the Mexican government has added sugar taxes. After the first year of this taxing there has been a 5.5 percent drop in sugar consumption of the nation. In the second year after the taxes were in place, there was a 9.7 percent drop in sugar consumption. This study also noted that sugary drink consumption as well a s fruit juice consumption was high not only for commercially available packaged drinks but also home-made sugary drinks.According to Lara-Castor, “For sugar-sweetened beverages, fruit juice and milk, these data reflect updated and expanded estimates of the 2010 GDD, while for coffee and tea these constitute the first global quantitative estimates to be ever reported.” She said, “These data highlight gaps in dietary surveillance, further helping inform nutrition transitions over time, the impacts of these beverages on global health, and targeted dietary policy to improve diet and health.”The team adds that there were some limitations in the study. They write that the beverage consumption data came for only certain beverages, within a certain time period in the country. Lara-Castor said, “In particular, more intake data were available in 2015 than in 1990, and relatively few intake data were available in most Sub-Saharan African nations. [Nevertheless,] our findings represent the best available, yet still imperfect, data on global intakes of key foods.” She explained, “In ongoing work, we are updating our searches, data collection and modelling, to overcome each of these prior limitations.”Overall the study gives a fair idea of what the world is drinking, said Lara-Castor. This may help develop nutritional policies that could be beneficial to public health she concluded. Paket / Shutterstock
The new team in Renault’s driving seat face some politically sensitve decisions, with the company ingrained in the French psyche Gaetan Toulemonde, a French auto analyst at Deutsche Bank, told AFP that French interference is a problem and urged Renault to reduce its stake in Nissan.”Don’t forget Volvo more than 20 years ago. The marriage broke up because of the French state,” said the expert, referring to a failed merger between Renault and the Swedish manufacturer.’National property’Despite ongoing strains, analysts generally agree the two firms are now so closely interconnected that a split would be catastrophic.They need each other to develop the technology for electric vehicles, automated driving and connected cars—as well as to compete with the likes of Toyota and Volkswagen, said Lewis.”Given their platform development for the next decade is already intertwined, divorcing now would be difficult” she added.Nakanishi agreed, saying it would now be “impossible” now to end the alliance. “It took 20 years to get to this level. It would take 20 years to unwind,” he said.But Renault is also deeply ingrained in the economy and psyche of France, making any reduced presence politically sensitive.”I want the French people to know: not a day goes by where we are not following as closely as possible the situation of Renault and the alliance,” said Economy Minister Bruno Le Maire.And the bond between France and Renault was summed up in an editorial in the regional French press after the appointments were made public.”Which family has not one day driven in a Renault… it embodies the car of the people.”Referring to French rock star Johnny Hallyday, the editorial concludes: “Renault is to the car what Johnny was to French music. National property.” Explore further Citation: Nissan-Renault on smoother road but speed bumps loom: analysts (2019, January 25) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-01-nissan-renault-smoother-road-loom-analysts.html “They need to reduce their stake. That is the only solution to regain trust and make the alliance workable,” added Nakanishi, as reports in the Japanese media said Paris was pushing for a full-on merger. Renault’s appointment of a new leadership duo to replace the detained Carlos Ghosn should ease tensions with Japanese partner Nissan, analysts say, although the French state’s close involvement remains a brake on ties. Carlos Ghosn took Nissan from the verge of bankruptcy and built it into the key partner of a fractious alliance France pushes Japan to accept Renault-Nissan merger: reports Ghosn was the linchpin of the three-way alliance that also includes Mitsubishi Motors, credited with driving together a sometimes fractious threesome with headquarters 10,000 kilometres apart to become the world’s top-selling auto group.But his shock arrest in Tokyo on charges of financial misconduct immediately drove a wedge between Nissan and Renault, with dark mutterings in Paris of a “coup” orchestrated by CEO Hiroto Saikawa to depose his former mentor and seize more power within the group.Saikawa himself confessed Thursday that communications had been “a bit difficult” since the arrest, noting that while Nissan had immediately jettisoned Ghosn as chairman, Renault kept him on as they awaited evidence against him.However, the appointment of old Asia hand Thierry Bollore as permanent CEO and Jean-Dominique Senard from tyre manufacturer Michelin as chairman, should open a “new chapter” in ties, Saikawa told reporters in Tokyo.Janet Lewis, head of transportation research at Macquarie Capital Securities, told AFP the alliance was “in many respects an unprecedented success story” and said it was “positive that Renault is moving forward” with Thursday’s appointments.But she added: “I believe it is less helpful that the French government seems to be so involved in the alliance.”‘Passion to be independent’ Much of the tension between the partners stems from a complex ownership structure that gives Renault 43 percent of Nissan and the French state just over 15 percent in Renault—making Paris the pivotal player.Nissan now outsells its French counterpart and its broad global footprint means it deserves to be seen as more than a junior partner, said Lewis.”Renault should be prepared to alter the working relationship to reflect what Nissan brings to the table—among other things a very strong position in both North America and China, markets where Renault has limited to no presence,” the analyst told AFP.Seen from Nissan’s perspective, the “strong interference” of the French state is “not fair”, according to Takaki Nakanishi, an auto analyst based in Tokyo.Ghosn rescued Nissan from the verge of bankruptcy by tying it to the alliance but now the Japanese firm “has a passion to be independent. They do not want to be part of the French state”, said Nakanishi. © 2019 AFP This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
RELATED Delhi Chief Minister Arvind Kejriwal – PTI COMMENT Published on justice and rights New Delhi SHARE ‘Centre egging on Delhi officials against Kejriwal’ Kejriwal calls off nine day sit-in Following is the chronology of events in the case related to the power tussle between the Centre and Delhi government in which a five-judge bench of the Supreme Court today unanimously held that Lieutenant Governor Anil Baijal does not have independent decision making powers and is bound to act on the aid and advice of the Council of Ministers.It had started with lodging of an FIR in 2014 by the then Arvind Kejriwal regime against Reliance Industries Ltd (RIL), Mukesh Ambani and others including UPA ministers M Veerappa Moily and Murli Deora (since dead), accusing them of “fixing” gas prices.2014 May 2 RIL moves the Delhi High Court for quashing of FIR and challenging a 1993 notification of the Centre giving power to Delhi government’s Anti-Corruption Branch (ACB) to probe union government employees.May 8 Centre moves HC opposing FIR against the ministers contending that ACB has no powers or jurisdiction to probe.May 9 HC issues notice to Delhi government on the plea to quash FIR against the ministers. HC allowed ACB to continue with its probe.May 20 HC asks Centre, RIL to cooperate with ACB probe.August 9 ACB tells HC that it has powers to lodge FIR in gas pricing case.August 19 ACB tells HC it cannot probe the gas pricing case against RIL and a former UPA minister as a July 23, 2014 notification of Centre has taken away its jurisdiction to investigate central government employees.October 16 Delhi government tells HC its ACB can prosecute RIL and ministers.October 28 Delhi HC gives time to Centre to clarify on ACB’s powers.December 4 RIL argues in HC that State probing Centre’s decision on gas pricing is absurd.2015May 25 HC says ACB has jurisdiction to arrest policemen who come under Centre. It says the Centre’s May 21 notification limiting ACB’s powers was “suspect”.May 26 PIL in HC against Centre’s May 21 notification giving powers to the Lieutenant Governor (LG) to appoint bureaucrats in Delhi.May 28 Delhi government moves HC on Centre’s notification on LG’s powers. Centre moves the Supreme Court against Delhi HC’s May 25 order terming as “suspect” its notification.May 29 HC asks LG to consider Delhi government’s proposals on shifting of nine bureaucrats from one post to another.June 10 HC refuses to stay MHA notification on ACB power.June 27 Delhi government moves HC to restrain LG appointee ACB chief M K Meena from entering anti-graft body’s office.2016January 27 Union government tells HC that Delhi is under Centre’s control and not full-fledged state.April 5 AAP government asks HC to refer to larger bench petitions on powers of LG on the governance of Delhi.April 6 Delhi government tells HC it was competent to set up a commission to probe allegations of corruption in awarding licence to conduct CNG fitness tests.April 19 AAP government withdraws from SC its plea seeking setting up of a larger bench in HC.May 24 HC reserves order on AAP government’s plea for a stay on proceedings on the petitions arising out of its stand-off with LG over powers to appoint bureaucrats in the national capital and other issues.May 30 HC turns down AAP government’s request to first decide its stay application. July 1 SC agrees to hear AAP government’s plea seeking a direction that HC be restrained from delivering judgement on issues, including the scope of powers of the city government to exercise its authority in performing public functions.July 4 Justice J S Khehar of SC recuses from hearing AAP govt’s plea on declaration of powers of Delhi as a state.July 5 Justice L Nageshwar Rao of SC also recuses from hearing Delhi government’s plea.July 8 SC refuses to entertain Delhi government plea to first decide the preliminary issue as to whether it has the jurisdiction over disputes between the Centre and the state or is it “exclusively” triable by the apex court.August 4 HC says LG is administrative head of National Capital Territory and AAP government’s contention that he is bound to act on the advice of Council of Ministers was “without substance”.2017February 15 SC refers to constitution bench the pleas on Delhi-Centre row over governance.November 2 Constitution bench of SC commences hearing.November 8 SC observes that responsibilities conferred upon LG are not absolute.November 14 SC raises a question if constitutional scheme on division of executive powers between the Centre and the states can be made applicable to the union territory of Delhi.November 21 Centre opposes AAP government’s submissions in the SC, says Delhi has been accorded “special status” among union territories but that does not make it a state.December 6 SC reserves judgement on a batch of pleas on Delhi-Centre power tussle after hearing arguments for 15 days. 2018July 4 SC says LG does not have independent decision making powers, and is bound to act on the aid and advice of the Council of Ministers. July 04, 2018 What is Kejriwal’s issue with L-G, whose role is clearly defined: Sheila SHARE SHARE EMAIL Delhi power tussle: A big win for Kejriwal as SC says LG doesn’t have independent powers politics COMMENTS
COMMENTS Telangana Chief Minister K Chandrasekhar Rao called upon the people to strengthen the Government weeding out corruption in administration and take the state into high growth path.Addressing the fifth anniversary celebrations of the Telangana formation, the Chief Minister mentioned about three legislations for municipal, panchayat raj, and revenue administration and said they were aimed at making them corruption free.The celebrations were relatively a low key fair due to the election code and oppressive summer.He said “By giving equal importance to development and welfare we initiated a process of reconstruction of the State.”Telangana, he said, has emerged as a powerful force stabilising itself as a state on progress. “Our State registered on an average 16.5 per cent revenue growth during the past five years. If the same trend continues, the indications clearly show that the State’s revenue will witness a multiplier growth. To further expand the development this growth rate augurs well.”Rao said, “We were able to demonstrate during the past five years some permanent solutions to several critical problems during the past five decades. This includes surmounting the power crisis, enabling 24×7 power to all sectors including agriculture. This has rejuvenated both the agriculture and industrial sectors.”Referring to the Mission Bhagiratha, which seeks to address the drinking water problem, he said it is at an advanced stage of completion in almost all rural areas. It will be commissioned on July 1.Mentioning about various welfare schemes, he said that their benefits will have far reaching impact on the people in the years to come.Referring to the irrigation projects his Government had taken up, including the mega Kaleshwaram lift irrigation project, the Chief Minister said “once these irrigation projects are completed, the entire Telangana will have green fields. This will ensure State becomes drought free and there will be water throughout the year.”On the Investment Support scheme for agriculture under the Rythu Bandhu, he said “We ensure that the farmer does not get into debts by giving Rs 4,000 per acre, per crop totalling Rs 8000 for two crops.” He announced enhancement of the amount to Rs 5,000 per acre per season working out to Rs 10,000 for two seasons per acre. K Chandrasekhara Rao (file photo). – The Hindu June 02, 2019 COMMENT Published on SHARE SHARE SHARE EMAIL Telangana